Testicular Cancer

Dr Gunes Dr Hossami

Dr. Adem Günes & Dr. Abdulla El-Hossami


Testicular Cancer begins in the testicles and may spread to other parts of the body. It is a rare type of cancer that
is the most prevalent malignancy in men between fifteen and thirty-five years old in the US. The testicles, located in
the scrotum underneath the penis, produce various male sex hormones and sperm.

However, this type of cancer is highly treatable even when it metastasizes to other organs. Carticle will focus on the necessary information regarding testicular cancer, its risk factors, cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

How Common Is Testicular Cancer?
The American Cancer Society reports that an estimated 440 men will die from testicular cancer in the US in 2020.
Similarly, there will be 9,610 new cases this year. About 1 in every 250 men will develop the disease at some point in
their lifetime. Most people receive a diagnosis at 33 years old, on average. The risk of dying due to testicular
cancer is 1 to 5,000.

Risk Factors of Testicular Cancer
Risk factors increase a person’s chance of developing a disease. Having many of these does not mean you will develop
the disease. Similarly, not having any risk factors does not mean you will not have the condition in the future. The
following are the most well-known risk factors:

Cryptorchidism.This medical condition refers to having an undescended testicle that didn’t descend
before birth from the abdominal area.

Abnormal development of the testicle that occurs in some medical conditions or syndromes increases
the chances of cancer. Such an example is Klinefelter syndrome.

A family history of this cancer raises your likelihood of presenting with the disease in the

Being between 15 and 35 years old increases your chance of developing this type of cancer.

Being white raises your chance of developing this kind of cancer in comparison to being black.

Survival And Fatality of Testicular Cancer
It is one of the most curable cancers and fatality is nearly 100%. The risk of dying is one in five
thousand. And the survival rate of testicular cancer is 95%.

What Is the Cause of Testicular Cancer?
Scientists do not know exactly what causes testicular cancer, except for the fact that some cells start growing and
multiplying out of control, creating a tumor. The disease can spread to other tissues, as well. It begins in the germ cells, responsible for producing immature sperm. It is not clear why some of these
start growing out of control. However, the risk factors of testicular cancer seem to increase the chance of an
individual developing the disease.

Symptoms And Signs of Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer most commonly affects a single testicle. The followings are some the symptoms and signs:

  • A lump in the testicle
  • An enlarged testicle
  • Feeling your scrotum heavy
  • Inflammation or fluid collection in the scrotum
  • Pain in one testicle or scrotum
  • Having pain in the back
  • Having a dull ache in the groin.

Most people have symptoms that suggest testicular cancer. When they consult their doctor, he or she performs a
physical exam and asks questions to find out more about the history and risk factors of the individual. During the
clinical examination, your doctor will examine your testicles to check for lumps or swelling. The doctor will also
review your lymph nodes and abdominal area to check for signs of metastasis. According to the results of the above, he
or she will suggest further testing. Some of the investigations used to diagnose are the following:

  • Ultrasound of the testicles
  • Blood tests to test for tumor markers
  • Biopsy to take a sample of tissue and examine it under the microscope
  • Surgery and testicle extraction to determine if it’s cancerous
  • Imaging tests to check for metastasis and to stage the tumor.

How To Perform a Self-Exam of Testicles

  • Self-examining the testicles every month helps find a tumor early. It involves checking the testicles while
    standing and when the scrotal skin is most relaxed, like after a hot water bath or shower.
  • Gently roll each testicle between your thumb and forefingers to feel its entire surface. The testis should be firm
    all around.
  • Find the soft tube-like structures the epididymis and vas deferens behind the testicles and become familiar with
    how they feel.
  • Look for any lumps, swelling, or anything that does not seem right. These may not cause any pain, yet having them
    is abnormal.

Check every month for any changes in shape, size, or texture. If you find any lump, swelling, pain, or changes in the
feel of the testicles, visit a urologist to know if it is cancer or anything else.

Can You Diagnose Testicular Cancer Early?
Yes. Testicular cancer usually causes early symptoms that make men seek medical care and attention early in the course
of the disease. Usually, it presents as a swelling in the scrotum or a lump in the testicle. Although some types of
testicular cancer are asymptomatic until later stages, they are usually highly treatable, even in more advanced
stages. Most doctors suggest examining the testicles should be part of all clinical examinations as a screening method
for testicular cancer.

Types of Testicular Cancer
Scientists classify testicular cancer according to the cells responsible for the disease. It is vital to know what
class of testicular cancer you have so that you can receive appropriate treatment. The two general types of testicular
cancer are seminomas and nonseminomas. Seminomas are not very aggressive and occur in older men. Nonseminomas occur in
younger men and are generally more aggressive than seminomas. Each category consists of many subtypes of testicular
cancer that require special care and treatment.

What Is the Treatment of Testicular Cancer?
The treatment of testicular cancer depends on many factors, including the patient’s overall health, age, history,
type, and stage of testicular cancer. The disease is highly treatable and responds well to therapeutic interventions,
even in the presence of metastasis. There are three standard treatment methods for testicular cancer, which are the

  • Surveillance
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy

During surgery, your surgeon will remove your testicle and surrounding lymph nodes, if necessary. Radiation therapy,
mostly reserved for seminomas, uses high-powered energy beams to kill the tumor and its cancer cells. Chemotherapy
uses oral drugs to kill cancer cells. You might need to take it alone or in combination with another therapeutic
intervention, such as surgery. While surgery might carry some common risks, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have
some side effects. Consider consulting your doctor to learn more about your treatment options and their potential side

Living With Testicular Cancer
You can have a prosthesis to replace the lost testicle, which will feel and look like a normal testicle.

All is not lost after the removal of one testicle. The other testicle can produce enough testosterone and help keep
up the bone and muscle strength, libido, and energy levels. You may be able to father your children though treatments
like radiotherapy are bound to reduce fertility levels.

The fear of contracting cancer again can linger on after treatment. You can seek medical therapy for this.

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